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Internal Grant Final Reports

Final Reports Submitted During the Spring Semester of 2007:

Joyce Chang, Dawna Buchanan (Butterfield), Ann Powell-Brown, Uzziel Pecina and Yuankun Yao
Chad King
James Loch
Duane Lundervold
Mary McCord & Larry Michaelsen
Joseph Ryan
Kim Stark-Wroblewski


Joyce Chang, Dawna Buchanan (Butterfield), Ann Powell-Brown, Uzziel Pecina and Yuankun Yao

Grant Activity Summary

This grant has been extremely helpful.  Our team works well together and has regular communication about the project. Working on this project has been a wonderful learning experience for all of us.  Due to the assistance of the grant money, we were able to purchase our research materials and supporting resources.  Grant money was used wisely and carefully.  As a result, we have one published article and two conference presentations.   If you need additional information, please feel free to contact Joyce Chang.  We will continue to work on the second phase of our research project.

Thank you very much for supporting our team. 

Productivity - Result (… as  April 18, 2007)
1. One Conference Paper Presentation
Chang, I. J., Buchanna, D. L., Powell-Brown, A., Pecina, U, & Yao, Y. (2006). What do the neighbors think? Looking at how the United States & Canada reflect one another in social studies/multicultural education curriculum for public school children.  Canadian/United States Justice Issues: Cross-Border & Global Contexts Conference, Warrensburg, MO in February 20, 2006.

2. One Journal Article Publication
Chang, I. J., Buchanna, D. L., Powell-Brown, A., Pecina, U, & Yao, Y. (2006).  Portrait of Canada and the United States: How These Two Countries Are Reflected in Children’s Textbooks. Journal of Criminal Justice, 6, 111-118.

3. One International Conference Paper accepted.  (October 2007,  Vancouver, Canada)
Yuankun Yao, Joyce Chang, Dawna Lisa Buchanan, Ann Powell-Browan, Uzziel Pecina (2007).  Different Drummers: Intercultural Perspectives in Multicultural Education. Phi Delta Kappa International’s Summit on Global Education. Vancouver, Canada.  Paper accepted for presentation. 

We will continue to work on this project.  Please continue to support our team in the future.  Thank you!


Chad King

The principal investigator is entering the third year of a five year study that will present a collective database of the distribution of the three species of short-tailed shrews in Missouri:  Blarina brevicauda (Northern Short-tailed Shrew), Blarina hylophaga (Elliot's short-tailed shrew), and Blarina carolinensis (Southern short-tailed shrew).  The historical distribution of each species in Missouri based on previous documentation resulted in a preliminary map.  Museum collection data was compiled from within Missouri as well as published journal data.
Based on the historical data collected, three state-wide transects (Figure 1) were established to determine the extent of distribution of each species.  Transects were also established to identify potential zones of overlap based on the historical distributions of the three species.  Based on transects, specific sites within each county were determined to maximize the likelihood of collecting short-tailed shrew specimens.
Small mammal Sherman live traps and pitfall traps were utilized at each site within the county to ensure the survival of target (shrews) and non-target (other small mammals) species.  It was also important for the survival of the target species due to the protocol of karyotyping shrews.
Collected shrews were karyotyped based on the methodology established by Baker (1970) and George et al. (1982).  Previous studies (George et al., 1982; Genoways, 1977) have documented that each species of Blarina has different numbers of chromosomes (both diploid and fundamental numbers) even though they are very similar morphologically.  Therefore, a comparison between the karyotype and standard morphological characters was essential.  Specific tissues (heart, liver) were collected from each specimen for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis to further support the identification of the specimen.

  Transect one (Atchison County to Marion County) was sampled and resulted in 13 shrews.  Based on the chromosome (karyotype) analysis, the diploid and fundamental numbers of chromosomes were consistent with Blarina hylophaga.  No shrews collected were consistent with Blarina brevicauda.  Tissue samples from the 13 shrews collected along transect one were sent to Tarleton State University for genetic analysis to further confirm the identity of the shrews.  At this time, the data from genetic analysis has not been confirmed.
Transect two (Johnson County to Jefferson County) yielded 15 short-tailed shrews that were karyotypically analyzed.  The diploid and fundamental numbers of chromosomes from these shrew samples were also consistent with Blarina hylophaga.
Transect three (Johnson County to Pemiscot County) is expected to be sampled the summer of 2007.  Within this transect, it is my expectation that a transition will occur from Blarina hylophaga to Blarina carolinensis.  Museum records indicate the presence of Blarina carolinensis within the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (Bootheel Region).
Species (#)            Mean Diploid #           Mean Fund. #
B. hylophaga (28)           52                             60.5
B. brevicauda                 *                                *
B. carolinensis                **                               **
Table 1.  The mean diploid and fundamental numbers of chromosomes within each species of short-tailed shrew. * Indicates no B. brevicauda have been captured to date.  ** Indicates sampling for this species will occur in summer 2007.

 Species                 Mean total length           Mean tail length              Mean mass
B. hylophaga               103.4 mm                        21.1 mm                        13.8 g
B. brevicauda              x                                     x                                    x
B. carolinensis             y                                     y                                    y

Table 2.  The mean physical characteristics of the short-tailed shrews sampled.
x – indicates no B. brevicauda have been caught to date.
y – indicates sampling for this species will occur in summer 2007.

  To date, several important findings have occurred.  The most important result was determined based on the data collected along transect one.  Several studies (George et al., 1982, Moncrief et al., 1982; Wilson and Ruff, 1998) have demonstrated the presence of the three short-tailed shrew species in Missouri.  Transect one did not yield any Blarina brevicauda.  This leads to three conclusions.  First, it is possible that B. brevicauda is not present in Missouri.  Second, it is possible that B. brevicauda is present in Missouri, but is not as prevalent as suggested in previous studies.  Third, the capture of B. hylophaga along transect one indicates that the distribution of B. hylophaga is greater than suggested in previous studies.
The study by George et al. (1982) was the most exhaustive study of short-tailed shrews in North America at the time.  However, the study did not sample shrews from Missouri, yet the current distributions of the three shrew species was determined base on the study.  Based on data collected along transect one suggests the presence of only two species of shrews within Missouri.  Shrews collected along transect two were only specimens of B. hylophaga.  Based on over 6000 trap-nights along transect one and two, it has led me to hypothesize that B. hylophaga is found state-wide as opposed to being found in the southern two-thirds of the state as indicated by previous studies.  The sampling of transect three during the summer of 2007 will provide further data as to the extent of the distribution of B. hylophaga and its relationship with the distribution of B. carolinensis which is expected to be found only in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain in southeastern Missouri.

Variations in the fundamental number of chromosomes were found within B. hylophaga.  This is consistent with the studies by George et al. (1982) and Moncrief et al. (1982).  The reason for the variations, known as Robertsonian polymorphisms, is not completely understood at this time in the study of shrews.  The process of Robertsonian polymorphism can occur in various ways including the combining and/or separation of two or more chromosomes.  It is known to occur in various mammals, fish, and gastropods.  These changes that occur in chromosome number however do not seem to decrease birth rates within the particular species in question.
The grant that was accepted through UCM allowed me to begin the process of analyzing the distributions and karyotypic relationships between the three species of short-tailed shrews in Missouri.  It also allowed me to use the karyotyping protocol as a teaching tool within my courses which presented students with the opportunity to practice collecting and developing karyotypes as a skill.  Students in my courses were given an opportunity to live trap small mammals and learn the techniques of bone marrow extraction to separate and highlight the number of chromosomes found within the cells of the organism.  This has developed into several mammal studies for both undergraduate and graduate student research.


James Loch

'Refinement of the Middle-Lower Ordovician Boundary at Whiterock Canyon, Nevada' (19SM014)

Introduction: The primary goal of this grant proposal was to establish the distribution of trilobite fossils in a limestone and shale outcrop in Nevada.  This outcrop, the Whiterock Canyon section, is the standard of reference (boundary stratotype) for the beginning of the Middle Ordovician, Whiterockian Series in North America.  Ross and Ethington (1991) defined the base of the Whiterockian at the lowest (earliest) occurrence of the conodont microfossil Tripodus laevis.  Ross and Ethington (1991) indicate that this horizon occurs in the lowest bed of the Antelope Valley Limestone.  Subsequent work, however, has indicated that the lowest occurrence is in a limestone bed 8 feet (2.6m) lower in the section, within the underlying Ninemile Shale (Ethington, 1998, pers. comm.).

Fortey (1980; Fortey and Droser, 1996) has maintained that a break in sediment deposition, a surface known as an unconformity, exists within the Whiterock Canyon section near the lowest occurrence of Tripodus laevis. .  This suggestion is problematic because international procedures for the definition of series suggest that the reference sections should be without major breaks or unconformities (Salvatore, 1994). 

Seventeen trilobite-bearing collections produced through the funding of this proposal (Figure 1) have yielded at least 30 trilobite species, of which 5 are new.  Preliminary analysis of this data indicated that trilobites known from the overlying Antelope Valley Limestone extended 30 feet (9.8m) below the lowest occurrence of Tripodus laevis and suggested that there was no evidence of an unconformity in this section near the beginning of the Whiterockian Series.

As an internal check, however, I provided surplus limestone from each of my trilobite-bearing limestone to Ethington.  He processed the samples for conodonts and found that my samples indicates that the lowest occurrence of Tripodus laevis occurred 30 feet (9.8m) below the lowest horizon from which it had previously been reported (Ethington, 2002-2003, pers. comm.).  In subsequent discussions with Ethington we came to realize that we collected from slightly different areas of the canyon, although these were separated by less than 100 feet (32.8m).

There are several interpretations possible for the inconsistency in the lowest occurrence of Tripodus laevis at Whitrock Canyon.  1) A hidden fault has dropped my samples to a position below the lowest occurrence of Tripodus laevis in Ethington’s samples.  2) My samples were collected from a channel incised into a muddy continental shelf and filled by local limestones.  This may delineate the position of the unconformity that Fortey and Droser (1996) predicted the outset.  3) Ethington failed to recover the true lowest occurrence of Tripodus laevis.  If we were able to extend the distribution of this species lower in the section, closer to my distribution, we could accept that some incision had occurred, but suggest that there was no significant break in sedimentation present (no unconformity).

I made a first attempt to resolve this inconsistency in May 2005 with funding from a UCM Mini-grant.  I managed to recollect 4 collection horizons and added an additional new species to the list of those recovered from the section.  Unfortunately, early in the second day in the field a severe thundersnow essentially made the 28.5 mile dirt road that is used to access the section unsafe for passage and forced me from the field.  I have scheduled another attempt for May of 2007.

Outcomes:  I have presented on the trilobite distribution from the Whiterock Canyon section twice (Loch, 2002, 2003) before we realized that there is a problem with the conodont diatribution.  During a sabbatical in the Fall Semester of 2004 I prepared the description of these trilobites for an eventual manuscript.  Unfortunately, before I can complete and submit that manuscript I need to resolve the possible interpretations for the inconsistency in the lowest occurrence of Tripodus laevis. 

During the original fieldwork and subsequent visit I have taken UCM Geology majors along as field assistants.  This opportunity has allowed each student to experience geological conditions unlike those found around Warrensburg and aided in their professional development.

Fortey, R. A. 1980.  The Ordovician Trilobites of Spitzbergen.  II. Remaining Trilobites of the Valhallfonna Formation.  Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter 17, 163 p.
_____, and M. L. Droser. 1999.  Trilobites from the base of the type Whiterockian (Middle Ordovician) in Nevada.  Journal of Paleontology, 73:182-201.
Loch, J. D.  2002.  Trilobite biostratigraphy across the base of the Whiterockian Series at the proposed GSSP at Whiterock Canyon, Nevada. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 34:427.
Loch, J. D.  2001. Trilobite biostratigraphy in the upper Ninemile Formation at the Whiterock Canyon Narrows: Implications for a proposed boundary stratotype for the Middle Ordovician Series.  Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Trilobites and their Relatives, Oxford, England. 
Ross, R. J., Jr. and R. L. Ethington. 1991.  Stratotype of Ordovician Whiterockian Series.  Palaios, 6:156-173.
Salvatore, A. 1994. International Stratigraphic Guide.  International Union of Geological Sciences.  214 p.


Duane Lundervold

The funded research, "Experimental Analysis of Behavioral Relaxation Training," is a labor intensive project involving eight to 13, 45-minute sessions during which subjects are trained and assessed in relaxation skills.  Assessment includes direct observation and physiological monitoring.

Multiple attempts to recruit undergraduate research participants have been conducted.  Due to undergraduate students having a preference for reasearch projects that are brief (i.e., 10 minutes or less), easy (completion of paper/pencil questionnaire), the necessary number of participants needed to conduct the research has not been obtained.  Consequently, the project has not been completed.

Incentives for participants will be needed to conduct the research; however, additional funding from a different source will be required.

Mary McCord & Larry Michaelsen

This grant was used to collect data for an experimental study of several potentially influential variables in Service Learning.  It outcomes was a new instrument of “maturity”, and an assessment of the differences in experiential programs in a quantitative manner.  This study expanded the knowledge of learning theory and instructional design significantly.  In addition, it may serve to motivate more technology instructors to incorporate service learning in their curriculum.  The abstract follows:

Student Development in Service Learning: Constructing an Instrument

Service learning is the integration of service into academic activities of the university.  As a pedagogical method, it is believed to improve dimensions such as retention, citizenship, and development.  Most studies are qualitative in nature.  Few empirical studies exist, perhaps due to few instrument designed to measure service learning outcomes.  This study reports on a new instrument of student development that examines the perceptions of college students concerning their peer’s development.  Respondents are enrolled in the core CIS undergraduate course (CIS 3630) with different pedagogical treatments; integrative service learning vs. ‘other’.  This paper conducts a factorial analysis and suggests a modified instrument to study personal development.  Survey outcomes to be measured are peer’s considerate behavior towards others, their ability to work better over time, and their ability to deal with or resolve conflict.  Control factors include respondent’s demographics, work history, volunteer history, and enrollment motivation.  Outcomes are most positive in the integrated service learning course experience.

Key Words:
Service Learning, Higher Education

The initial study was coauthored with Victoria Steel and submitted to the UCM Faculty Days Research in February 2005.  The paper won first prize in the category ‘Instructional Technology, Service Learning and Scholarship of Teaching and Learning’.  Additional data points were collected, and this paper was accepted and submitted at the Regional Campus Compact Conference June 26-28, 2006, “Empowering and Engaging our Campuses through Service & Learning” in Kansas City, Missouri..

Online data collection is continuing, for future submission to education/pedagogy journals.


Joseph Ryan

The present investigation examines the concurrent validity and level of agreement in terms of intellectual classification between the WISC-IV and the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test-Eighth Edition (OLSAT-8; Otis & Lennon, 2003). The OLSAT-8 measures the cognitive abilities of children from Kindergarten through 12th grade. It is a paper-and-pencil, teacher administered, group test that provides a Total score along with Verbal and Nonverbal part scores. Each raw score is converted into a School Ability Index (SAI) with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 16. The Total score is considered to be the best overall predictor of a child's school-learning ability. The OLSAT-8 assesses intellectual functions across seven levels via items that require identifying likenesses and differences, defining words, remembering numbers and words, establishing sequence, solving arithmetic problems, completing analogies, and following directions. The test was standardized in 2002 on a representative sample of American school children. Reliability coefficients range from .88 to .94 across 13 grade levels and 14 age groups.
Thirty-nine children attending first through eighth grade (males = 20, females = 19) at a small, private Midwestern school served as participants. There were 36 Whites and 3 African Americans. Means for age, education, and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) were 9.18 years (SD = 2.16, R = 6 to 14), 3.49 years (SD = 2.09, R = 1 to 8), and 112.97 (SD = 11.82, R = 88 to 134). None of the students were identified as learning disabled or academically challenged.

The first author approached officials of a small private school concerning their assistance with the present research project. Permission was requested to allow supervised graduate students to administer the WISC-IV to the entire student body free of charge. In exchange for full cooperation, the school would be provided with OLSAT-8 test materials and computer scoring services, WISC-IV subtest and summary scores, and consultation on interpretation issues, confidentiality, and proper disposition of the WISC-IV and OLSAT-8 results. School officials sent permission forms to the parents of all students enrolled during March of 2005. Of the 40 available students, permission was granted to test 39 with both the WISC-IV and the OLSAT-8. The parents of one child refused permission to administer the WISC-IV, but agreed to allow their child to take the OLSAT-8 as part of the school's 2004-2005 assessment program.
The WISC-IV and the OLSAT-8 were administered to participants between April and May of 2005. Three qualified examiners administered the WISC-IV according to standard instuctions, whereas the OLSAT-8 was administered by teachers according to standard instructions. The OLSAT-8 testing was completed during a one week period in April 2005.

As Table 1 indicates, means for the VCI, PRI, and FSIQ did not differ from their appropriate OLSAT-8 (i.e., Verbal, Nonverbal, and Total) counterparts using a series of paired t-tests with the Bonferroni adjustment. Confidence intervals were calculated using the standard error of measurement for the WISC-IV FSIQ. In 23% (9/39) of the cases, the OLSAT-8 Total score was within the 68% confidence interval (+ 3 points) of the FSIQ. In 38% (15/39) and in 51% (20/39) of the cases, respectively, the OLSAT-8 Total score fell within either the 95% confidence interval (+ 6 points) or the 99% confident interval (+ 8 points) of the FSIQ. In 33% (13/39) of the cases, the OLSAT-8 overestimated the WISC-IV by 1 to 29 points (Mdn = 12); in 59% (23/39) of the cases, the OLSAT-8 underestimated the WISC-IV 1 to 25 points (Mdn = 8). In 8% (3/39) of the cases, the OLSAT-8 and the WISC-IV scores were identical. The mean absolute difference score between the OLSAT-8 and the WISC-IV FSIQ was 9.2 points.

Table 2 presents correlations among the WISC-IV and OLSAT-8 variables. Significant relationships were demonstrated between the WISC-IV composites and both the OLSAT-Verbal and Total scores. The PRI and FSIQ were the only WISC-IV variables that were significantly associated with the OLSAT-Nonverbal score. The three coefficients between similar constructs (i.e., VCI vs. OLSAT Verbal, PRI vs. OLSAT-Nonverbal, and FSIQ vs. OLSAT Total) were significant at the .01 level. An unexpected finding was that the OLSAT-8 Verbal score correlated more highly with the PRI (r = .57) than with the VCI (r = .44).

Means for the OLSAT-8 Total score and WISC-IV FSIQ did not differ significantly. Nevertheless, only half of the OLSAT-8 scores fall within the 99% confidence interval of the FSIQ, and the former test composite tended to underestimate the latter score when individual cases were considered. This might have significant ramifications if a child is being considered for placement in a gifted program. Of the 13 participants with superior WISC-IV FSIQs (i.e., > 120), the OLSAT-8 Total score classified four as high average in global ability and three as average. These findings are consistent with a previous report on children with learning disabilities who were given the WISC-III and the OLSAT-6 (Guilmette et al., 2001). The OLSAT-6 underestimated the FSIQ by 1 to 35 points (mode = 9 points). Likewise, in a Canadian study of gifted children the OLSAT-6 was ineffective for identifying third graders who scored at or above the 98th percentile on the WISC-III (Beal, 1995). These data suggest that practitioners should proceed with caution when estimating a child's intellectual ability using the OLSAT-8.  

Only 23% (i.e., 9/39) of the OLSAT-8 Total scores fell within + 1 standard errors of measurement (+ 3 points) of the WISC-IV FSIQ. Since it is reasonable to expect that 68% (i.e., 26 or 27) of cases would fall within the 68% confidence interval, it is apparent that the OLSAT-8 and WISC-IV did not demonstrate a high level of agreement in predicting global ability. This finding may be due to differences between the WISC-IV and the OLSAT-8 in terms of content, structure, and method of administration. The Letter-Number Sequencing and Digit Span subtests have no counterparts on the OLSAT-8. Another significant difference between the instruments is that the WISC-IV uses a standard deviation of 15, whereas and the OLSAT-8 has a standard deviation of 16. Finally, the WISC-IV is individually administered and allows examiners to constantly monitor the child’s motivation. OLSAT-8 uses classroom administration, making it more difficult to eliminate distractions and to accommodate the needs of individual examinees.                  
The present findings indicate a substantial degree of association between the WISC-IV FSIQ and the OLSAT-8 Total score (r = .71), accounting for about 50% of the variance. This is somewhat better than reported in previous research that correlated the WISC-III FSIQ and OLSAT-6 Total score (r = .62) in a sample of 201 children referred for learning disability evaluation (Guilmette et al., 2001), but consistent with that reported (r = .73) for 65 healthy children administered both tests during standardization of the WISC-III (Wechsler, 1991).

Further examination of the data revealed that the OLSAT-8 Verbal score was more highly correlated with the WISC-IV PRI (r = .57) than with the VCI (r = .44). This finding is counter intuitive and inconsistent with Guilmette et al. (2001) who found that the OLSAT-6 Verbal score was more highly associated with the WISC-III Verbal IQ (r = .57) than it was with the Performance IQ (r = .41). Likewise, the finding differs from that of Wechsler (1991) who reported that the OLSAT-6 Verbal score correlated more highly with the WISC-III Verbal IQ (r = .69) and VCI (r = .65) than it did with the Performance IQ (r = .59) and the POI (r = .51). Until research indicates otherwise, it is reasonable to assume that this unexpected finding reflects differences in how the VCI construct is measured by the two Wechsler Scales.
The present investigation is the first to compare the WISC-IV to a group administered measure of intelligence and school ability. However, practitioners should be cautioned that the findings of this study are based on a relatively small sample and may not generalize to other groups with different demographic characteristics. Additional research is needed that compares the WISC-IV and OLSAT-8 using larger samples of pupils, including those from suburban and inner city schools. Future studies should also include different ethnic/racial groups and represent a wide range of ability levels.          

Note: The Stanford Achievement Test was administered to each participant, but I have not had an opportunity to analyze this material. Also, modified the protocol to include a return visit to retest some of the participants with the WISC-IV. Twenty-two children were tested. Unfortunately, I have not had time to analyze this data. 


Kim Stark-Wroblewski

The following is a Final Project Summary Report for the study entitled “Late-Life Work Issues among Migrant Workers of Mexican Descent:  An Exploratory Investigation,” which was supported by the University of Central Missouri’s Internal Grants Program [grant # KSWUA1].  Although 20% of the data was collected [i.e., 4 out of the hoped-for 20 interviews were completed], it was determined that it was not feasible to conduct this study in its entirety at this point in time.  The primary reason for the study’s lack of feasibility centered around the difficulty in maintaining personnel who could conduct the interviews. That is, the population [Migrant workers of Mexican descent] is readily available in the area; however, the Primary Investigator was unable to find an individual, conversant in Spanish, who was available on an ongoing basis to conduct the interviews.  Two individuals were contacted who indicated their interest in and ability to assist with the interviews, and both received training on the interview protocol, purposes of the study, etc.  One of these individuals [person A] later became incapacitated due to family illness.  The other individual [person B] conducted four [4] interviews and submitted the tapes of these to me; however, shortly thereafter, person B stopped responding to telephone calls, e-mail correspondence, etc., despite repeated statements that she was highly interested in, and wished to continue working on, the study.   Thus, rather than risk purchasing additional equipment [e.g., translation software], in the absence of reliable personnel to assist with the study, data collection was halted. 

The total expenses used in the course of this project were as follows:
$51.50 – Payment to person B for conducting interviews [reimbursed at $5.15 per hour for 10 hours].
$100.00 – Reimbursement to four [4] participants at $25.00 each who completed the interviews.
Total expenditures =  $151.50

As noted previously, regrettably, it was determined that, due to personnel issues [i.e., a lack of Spanish-speaking individuals to assist with the interviews] it was not feasible to conduct this study in its entirety at this point in time.  However, based on conversations with person B [who conducted 4 interviews], investigation in this area should indeed be a high priority, as several of those who were interviewed indicated that they were not aware of retirement-planning options [e.g., 401k plans] available through their employer.  Thus, it would appear that research in this area is indeed warranted.  Additionally, it was clear that the population we seek to study [migrant workers of Mexican descent] is readily available in the area—thus, the problem does not have to do with sampling difficulties.   Should the necessary personnel resources [i.e., Spanish conversant individuals available to assist with the interviews] become available at some point in the future, this investigator would be very much interested in pursuing this line of research again in the future.  At the present time, however, such resources do not appear to be available. 

Despite the fact that the project did not exactly go as I had hoped, I actually learned a great deal about the grants process by doing this, and I certainly plan to submit for internal, as well as external, funding again in the future.  I wish to thank the University Research Program Committee for granting me this opportunity, and regret that I was unable to complete the study at the present time.  Additionally, I thank the University Research Program staff [including support staff] all of their assistance with funding issues related to this project.